LEARNING GUIDE TO:
One of the Best! This movie is on TWM's short list of the best movies to supplement classes in United States History, High School Level.Age 14+; MPAA Rating -- PG-13 for intense depiction of the Salem witch trials; Drama;1996; 124 minutes; Color. Available from Amazon.com.
Description: The Crucible is a film version of Arthur Miller's play about Puritan society, the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692, and, metaphorically, the Red Scare during the period 1947 - 1956. Miller wrote the screenplay for the movie, giving the film more credibility than most adaptations of classic plays.
Rationale for Using the Movie: The play is a classic of the American stage. Students of both American Literature and U.S. History will better understand how a frightened society can ignore fundamental beliefs in justice as well as its own basic principles of the primacy of law. The film makes Miller's concepts applicable in terms of metaphor to situations that society faces today. Moreover, the film addresses individual responsibility in terms of honesty, integrity and forgiveness.
Objectives/Student Outcomes Using this Learning Guide: Opportunities for research enable students to look deeper into the underlying causes of historical events and through discussion and writing assignments students will be able to sharpen skills associated with analysis and persuasion.
Possible Problems: Minor: Some violence, but none as graphic or gruesome as the actual incidents that occurred during the efforts to exterminate witches.
LEARNING GUIDE MENU
SUGGESTIONS FOR USING THE CRUCIBLE IN THE CLASSROOM
Introducing the Movie
Introductory Class Discussion: Teachers may want to introduce the film with the following commentary and question. This should lead students to an open minded approach to the movie both in terms of the historical events that occurred in Salem in 1692 and the machinations of the professional redbaiters in the l950s.
Many people argue that the threat of international terrorism with its fanatic ideology and its chief weapon, the suicide bomber, is much different than threats faced in the past whether from witches or communists. They contend that terrorism cannot effectively be countered without widespread surveillance and restrictions on the rights of the accused. They contend that protection of society requires invasion of privacy and limits on the civil liberties of all citizens.
Information Helpful in Appreciating the Film:
Students will better appreciate the play and the movie if they know some basic facts about:
(2) Witchcraft Trials in Western Europe, and
(3) the Red Scare of 1947 - 1956.
Presentation of the introduction can occur as follows:
(A) assign groups of students to research these and other related topics and present their findings to the class;
(B) Students can be assigned to read and respond to the Worksheet in class or as homework; or
(C) teachers can provide the information in the worksheet to the class through direct instruction.
After Viewing the MovieDiscussion Questions:
1. How does "The Crucible," a story about the seventeenth century, relate to the Red Scare of the period 1947 - 1956, some 250 years later? What are the significant differences between the Salem Witchcraft Trials and the Red Scare? Suggested Response: Here are some similarities. Since society in the 1600s believed in witches and the threat of the devil, both societies felt threatened from powerful outside forces which had gained the allegiance (or so it was believed) of persons living within the community. In both, people felt that the foundations of society and their own basic beliefs were being attacked; both required ritualistic reaffirmations of faith in commonly held beliefs before the accused could be exonerated of guilt; both were used by unscrupulous persons to advance their own political or economic interests. In both situations many innocent people were wrongly accused. In both situations there was a feeling of hysteria and the usual safeguards for protecting people were not observed.
2. While the similarities are striking, there were many differences between the situation in Salem and in the HUAC hearings. Which differences stand out most vividly to you? Suggested Response: In Salem, people were executed, while in the Red Scare the worst punishments were several years in prison with the most frequent punishment being a ruined career. Another difference is that, in Salem, teenagers were the instigators of the hysteria. In the Red Scare of the late 1940s and early 1950s, adults were the accusers. In the 20th century hysteria, politicians played a leading role as accusers and instigators. Students may suggest additional differences.
3. What can be learned from the characters of John and Elizabeth Proctor? Where did they go wrong? What did they do that was right? Suggested Response: There is no one correct answer. John Proctor paid a terrible price for his dalliance with Abigail, which stirred feelings in her that he did not anticipate. By the end of the story, he shows the power of redemption, self-respect, and honor. He illustrates the price that sometimes must be paid when one stands upon principle against dishonor. Elizabeth is initially cold but by the end of the story shows the power of love, forgiveness, and honesty. All is lost in the one moment when she tells a lie.
For 10 additional discussion questions, including six relating to the literary elements of the play/film click here.
Post-Viewing Enrichment Worksheet:
TWM's Post-Viewing Enrichment Worksheet for "The Crucible" provides comments by Arthur Miller that will cement the lessons of the play in students' minds. The handout is intended for advanced students and for some classes it may be better for teachers to simply tell students about (1) Miller's prosecution by the HUAC and (2) what Chinese dissident Nien Cheng told him after she had been released from more than six years in solitary confinement and saw "The Crucible" when it was first performed in China. See the Worksheet for details.
Any of the discussion questions can serve as a writing prompt. Additional assignments include:
1. Research information on one of the following topics and write a formal expository essay on your findings.
2. Develop a logical, informed opinion on either side of the following posits and write a persuasive essay directed toward your classmates as a target audience:
3. Debates can be organized for any of the topics raised in the discussion questions or in the assignments.
For additional assignments, click here.
For a discussion of the career of Arthur Miller, see Learning Guide to "All My Sons"
Select questions that are appropriate for your students.
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Parenting Points: Your child may be viewing the film ancillary to assignments in classes requiring him or her to read the play. You may want to engage in conversation about the differences between the play and the film or about the connection between witch hunts and various historical events.
Reminder to Teachers: Obtain all required permissions from your school administration before showing any film.
Teachers who want parental permission to show this movie can use TWM's Movie Permission Slip.
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