LEARNING GUIDE FOR:
One of the Best! This movie is on TWM's short list of the best movies to supplement classes in United States History, High School Level.SUBJECTS — U.S./1860 - 1865 & Massachusetts;Age: 14+; MPAA Rating -- R for violence; Drama; 1989; 122 minutes; Color. Available from Amazon.com.
Description: Glory tells the story of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and the Massachusetts 54th Volunteer Regiment, the first regular U.S. army unit composed of black soldiers during the Civil War. Colonel Shaw, a white abolitionist, and hundreds of black volunteers in his regiment, gave their lives to prove that black men could fight as well as whites in the armies of the mid-19th century. The movie, for the most part, is historically accurate.
Rationale for Using the Movie: The film addresses a significant episode in U.S. history, the effort by abolitionists to make the Civil War into a war to end slavery, rather than just a war to preserve the Union. The fact that black men would take up arms and fight and die on the Union side was a major step in changing Northern attitudes toward slavery and the purpose of the war.
Objectives/Student Outcomes Using this Learning Guide: Students will understand the struggle to make an end to slavery a goal of the Civil War. They will expand their knowledge of the participation of black soldiers in the Civil War as well as the commitment of white abolitionists to the cause of ending slavery. Research and writing assignments in pursuit of these topics can be of great benefit in the study of the conflict that cost more American lives than any other.
Possible Problems: Portions of the film graphically show the violence of the Civil War and the suffering of the soldiers. However, the violence is not gratuitous in its depiction of the horrors that the soldiers would experience in battle.
SUGGESTIONS FOR USING GLORY IN THE CLASSROOM
Before showing the film, tell the class that most of the incidents portrayed in the film really happened.
Pre-Viewing Enrichment Worksheet:
The self-sacrifice of the soldiers of the Massachusetts 54th was made in the context of the effort of abolitionists and free blacks to get Lincoln and the Federal government to make the Civil War a war to abolish slavery. When the war began it was only to preserve the Union, as important a goal as that was. For classes that have not already studied the topic, TWM suggests that students be required to read and respond to the questions in the following enrichment worksheet.
Enrichment Worksheets are a TWM innovation containing text and questions designed to get students thinking. Questions are focused on comprehension, application, analysis, syntheses or evaluation. Questions can be answered in class or as homework, as quickwrites, journal entries, formal essays, or research papers. For a version of the Worksheet in word processing format, click here.
Changing Reasons for the North's Involvement in the Civil War
Abraham Lincoln was not elected President based on a promise to end slavery. In fact, it was just the opposite. He promised to leave slavery alone in the South. However, Lincoln wanted to prevent slavery from extending to any free state or any of the territories. It was this position that brought on secession.
Most Union soldiers fought so that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." At the beginning of the war, abolitionists were a minority. Had the war been seen as a crusade to end slavery, most Union soldiers would not have fought. In addition, the Union desperately needed the border states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. It was difficult to keep these states in the Union and would have been impossible if Lincoln had proposed ending slavery at the beginning of the war. The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1, 1863, freed the slaves only in the areas of insurrection and did not affect slavery in the Border states.
Question #1: In the present day and age, is preserving the United States as one country and not letting states secede from the Union, worth fighting a bloody civil war?During the War several things happened to seal the doom of slavery in the United States. Among these were the fact that the death toll for the war was incredibly high and even the goal of preserving one of the few broad-based democratic governments then existing in the world, did not justify all the bloodletting. By the end of the War, 360,000 Union soldiers had died from disease or wounds suffered in battle. Many more were injured. The death toll for the Confederate armies was about 258,000. Abolitionists like Frederick Douglass had been telling President Lincoln that the war didn't make sense if slavery was allowed to exist when the conflict was over. Second, while most Confederate soldiers were not slave owners, the power structure in the Confederacy was based on the ownership of slaves. As the war ground on, the North realized that the elimination of slavery was an efficient way to destroy the power-base of the secessionists. A third reason was the increasingly important role that black soldiers came to play in the Union Army. Authorization to enlist black soldiers was granted by Congress in July of 1862. The Massachusetts 54th, the first all black regiment began to enroll black soldiers in March of 1863. Eventually, some 179,000 black soldiers served in the Union Army (about 10% of its total strength) and another 19,000 served in the Navy (a total of 198,000 men). About 37,000 black soldiers lost their lives in the struggle; that's about one in five of those who enlisted. As more black men took on the Union uniform, the possibility of retaining slavery after the war became more and more remote. After all, when a man had risked his life for his country, who could deny him citizenship? Who could look him in the eye and argue that members of his family or he himself must be enslaved?
Question #2: Should the U.S. allow legal or even illegal aliens who risk their lives in combat to become citizens?Lincoln's Second Inaugural address, delivered on March 4, 1865, is one of the most moving speeches ever given by a political leader. It was delivered when the Union Armies were ascendant and when Lee's surrender, April 9, 1865, was just over a month away. The great bulk of Union casualties, both among white soldiers and black, had occurred by this time.
The President started the speech by reflecting on the time of his first inaugural address.
. . . On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it, all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war — seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came.
One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it.
Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged.
The prayers of both could not be answered. That of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. "Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh." If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether."
With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.
Question #3: Would you be willing to donate a kidney to allow another person to live? How is this the same or different than joining the army to fight in a war in which there were very high casualties?[End of Handout]
LEARNING GUIDE MENU
Review the enrichment worksheet for suitability for your classes. Modify as appropriate.
Teachers can cement the lessons of the movie about the strength of the commitment of the abolitionists by having students research, individually or in groups, the following questions and present their conclusions to the class. The answers are not what one would expect.
(1) What was the attitude of Colonel Shaw's mother to his actions in taking command of the Massachusetts 54th?
(2) Describe Colonel Shaw's marriage. What did he say about his wife just before the assault on Fort Wagner?
(3) Where were the officers and soldiers of the Massachusetts 54th, including Colonel Shaw, buried after the battle at Fort Wagner, what was the public reaction, and what did Colonel Shaw's father have to say about the situation?
Information that is responsive to these questions is set out in TWM's Post-Viewing Handout for Glory. As an alternative to the research and classroom presentations, teachers can assign the handout for in-class or homework reading or teachers can present the information as brief comments after the movie.
1. Where in the film do you see evidence that white soldiers have grown to respect their black counterparts? Suggested Response: In one scene white soldiers ridicule the blacks as they are working in construction along the roadside. The event nearly erupts into a fight. Then as the black troops march to the Fort Wagner battle site, the white soldier who had been most disrespectful calls out to the troops: "Give them hell, 54th." Among these men, this is an important symbol.
2. Using a white colonel, Robert Shaw, to tell the story of the 37,000 black soldiers who died during the Civil War generated some controversy. However, others defended the focus of the film on Colonel Shaw because they claimed that his story was, itself, important. What was the basis for that argument? Suggested Response: Answers will vary. The argument is that it was important to show the strength of the abolitionist' commitment the cause of ending slavery. Abolition was one of the most important social reform movements in the United States. This is an important story in itself.
3. What irony lies in the scene in which Trip is lashed after he is brought back to camp after having run away? Suggested response: Trip did not run away; he left in search of shoes which the northern command was not supplying to the black troops. Colonel Shaw did not want Trip lashed but understood the importance of discipline and thus had to order the punishment. Trip's back carried the scars of having been lashed as a slave; being lashed in the struggle against slavery is especially ironic. Because of close camera work, irony can also be seen in the fact that during the lashing, Shaw's facial expression shows more suffering than Trip's.
For additional discussion questions, click here.
Any of the discussion questions can serve as a writing prompt. Additional assignments include:
1. Research and write a formal report on the integration of black soldiers into the American military system. Be sure to include a bibliography at the end of your report and use only credible reference sites.
2. Research and write a formal report on the North's shifting reasons for the terrible carnage of the Civil War. Be sure to include a bibliography at the end of your report and use only credible reference sites.
3. When the character named Trip suggests that there is nothing in the war efforts for the black troops, he is making an important point. Research the difficulties faced by the emancipated slaves, as well as the surviving black troops and write an evaluation of the post-war period in terms of the promises of freedom. Look at economic, social and political factors in Reconstruction to write an analysis of the validity of Trip's remark.
For additional assignments, click here.
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