SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS FOR GULLIVERS TRAVELS
Gulliver's Travels was first published anonymously in 1726.
A bitter satire of the society of the day, it was
immediately popular. Unfortunately, a strong argument can be
made that the failings of mankind and the ills of society to
which Swift objected have improved only slightly during the
250 years since the book was written.
The Age of Enlightenment refers, approximately, to the century
before the French Revolution (1789). During this period,
advances in science and social theory gave rise to a faith
in logic, progress, and technical achievement. There was a
feeling that mankind was finally coming out of the Dark
Ages. Newton's discovery of gravity in 1687 and of the laws of
motion and of the calculus exemplify the type of important
scientific discoveries that launched the Enlightenment.
The optimism of the age is shown by these lines from Jonathan Swift's good
friend, the poet Alexander Pope (1688 - 1744):
All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee;
All Chance, direction that thou canst not see;
All Discord, Harmony not understood,
All partial Evil, universal Good....
One truth is clear, "Whatever is, is right."
Swift sought to make a correction to the optimism of the Enlightenment.
His goal was to reform society by showing the depravity of
man and human culture. But some eight
years after the first publication of Gulliver's Travels,
Swift, again writing as "Lemuel Gulliver," added a preface to a new
edition of the book. "Gulliver" first remarked that it had been a full
seven months after the first publication of Gulliver's
Travels. "Gulliver" continued, stating that while his
editor and friends had prevailed upon him to publish the
story of his travels "on the motive of public good," he had
... [T]he Yahoos were a species of animals utterly
incapable of amendment by precepts or examples:
and so it hath proved; for instead of seeing a
full stop put to all abuses and corruptions, at
least in this little island, as I had reason to
expect: behold, after above six months warning, I
cannot learn that my book hath produced one single
effect according to my intentions: I desired you
would let me know by a letter, when party and
faction were extinguished; judges learned and
upright; pleaders honest and modest, with some
tincture of common sense; and Smithfield blazing
with pyramids of law books; the young nobility's
education entirely changed; the physicians
banished; the female Yahoos abounding in virtue,
honour, truth and good sense; courts and levees of
great ministers thoroughly weeded and swept; wit,
merit and leaning rewarded; all disgracers of the
press in prose and verse, condemned to eat nothing
but their own cotton, and quench their thirst with
their own ink. These, and a thousand other
reformations, I firmly counted upon by your
encouragement; as indeed they were plainly
deducible from the precepts delivered in my book.
And, it must be owned, that seven months were a
sufficient time to correct every vice and folly to
which Yahoos are subject; if their natures had
been capable of the least disposition to virtue or
Additional Discussion Questions:
Continued from the Learning Guide...
1. Who was Swift referring to when he wrote about the Yahoos? What traits do you share with the Yahoos? Suggested Response: The Yahoos are uneducated, uncultured, or unthinking human beings. We are all Yahoos to one extent or another. The trick is to be as little like a Yahoo as possible.
2. For each society described in the movie, what ills in our society was Swift describing? Suggested Response: E.g., Yahoos: the insatiable need for more than enough and for sensual pleasure.
3. Why couldn't the Houynhynms see that Gulliver was not a Yahoo? What was Gulliver trying to tell us with this literary device?
4. If you were Gulliver, would you have been willing to abandon hope of returning to your wife and family to live with the Houynhynms?
5. Do you agree with the Queen of the Brobdingnagians (it was a king in the book) that "I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth?"
6. Define satire as a literary form and give three examples of satiric images or scenes from the film. In your examples, show how Swift uses the devices of satire, such as exaggeration, name calling, reversing attributes, and changing a virtue to a vice.
7. Do you think that there is a reason that the hero of this story is called "Gulliver?" Explain the role of symbolism in literature.
8. How did Gulliver change as a result of his travels? Did his view of wealth and its relation to happiness change?
Continued from the Learning Guide...
See additional Assignments for use with any Film that is a Work of Fiction.
Social-Emotional Learning Discussion Questions
PEACE/PEACEMAKERS - COURAGE IN WAR
1. Swift defined a soldier as "a Yahoo hired to kill in cold blood as many of his own species, who have never offended him, as possibly he can." Do you agree with this definition? Remember that Swift wrote at a time when wars were usually started only for conquest or loot. Does this make a difference in your analysis? What about soldiers serving in each of the following wars: the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic wars; the Spanish American War, the wars against the Indians, the wars against Mexico, the Civil War (see Chamberlain's speech to the Second Maine deserters in Gettysburg), or the First and Second World Wars? What about the other side in those conflicts?
2. Do you think that the failings of man and society described by Swift in his book have been corrected since Gulliver's Travels first appeared in 1726? Do you think, on the other hand, that we are just as bad as we were back in the 18th century?
No questions at this time.
Discussion Questions Relating to Ethical Issues will facilitate the use of this film to teach ethical principles and critical viewing. Additional questions are set out below.
1. Evaluate the societies of the Yahoos, the Lilliputians, the Brobdingnagians, and the Houynhynms. Which of the The Six Pillars of Character do they honor and which do they not comply with?
(Be honest; Don't deceive, cheat or steal; Be reliable -- do what you say you'll do; Have the courage to do the right thing; Build a good reputation; Be loyal -- stand by your family, friends and country)
(Treat others with respect; follow the Golden Rule; Be tolerant of differences; Use good manners, not bad language; Be considerate of the feelings of others; Don't threaten, hit or hurt anyone; Deal peacefully with anger, insults and disagreements)
(Do what you are supposed to do; Persevere: keep on trying!; Always do your best; Use self-control; Be self-disciplined; Think before you act -- consider the consequences; Be accountable for your choices)
(Play by the rules; Take turns and share; Be open-minded; listen to others; Don't take advantage of others; Don't blame others carelessly)
(Be kind; Be compassionate and show you care; Express gratitude; Forgive others; Help people in need)
(Do your share to make your school and community better; Cooperate; Stay informed; vote; Be a good neighbor; Obey laws and rules; Respect authority; Protect the environment)
Bridges to Reading:
The first two chapters of Gulliver's Travels are frequently recommended for reading by or to children. The book is renowned for its simple and clear prose.
Links to the Internet:
Common Core State Standards that can be Served by this Learning Guide
(Anchor Standards only)
Multimedia: Anchor Standard #7 for Reading (for both ELA classes and for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Classes). (The three Anchor Standards read: "Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media, including visually and quantitatively as well as in words.") CCSS pp. 35 & 60. See also Anchor Standard # 2 for ELA Speaking and Listening, CCSS pg. 48.
Reading: Anchor Standards #s 1, 2, 7 and 8 for Reading and related standards (for both ELA classes and for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Classes). CCSS pp. 35 & 60.
Writing: Anchor Standards #s 1 - 5 and 7- 10 for Writing and related standards (for both ELA classes and for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Classes). CCSS pp. 41 & 63.
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards #s 1 - 3 (for ELA classes). CCSS pg. 48.
Not all assignments reach all Anchor Standards. Teachers are encouraged to review the specific standards to make sure that over the term all standards are met.
Selected Awards, Cast and Director:
Selected Awards: 1996 Emmy Awards: [All awards are in the Mini-
Series/Special Category] Outstanding Mini-Series/Special, Best
Art Direction, Best Sound Mixing, Best Writing, Best Special
Effects; Best Hair Styling; 1996 Emmy Awards Nominations: Best
Direction; Best Cinematography; Best Single Camera Production;
Best Costume Design; Best Sound; Best Supporting Actress
Featured Actors: Ted Danson, Mary Steenburgen, James Fox, Ned
Beatty, Geraldine Chaplin, Edward Fox, Sir John Gielgud, Robert
Hardy, Shashi Kapoor, Nicholas Lyndhurst, Phoebe Nicholls, Karyn
Parsons, Edward Petherbridge, Kristin Scott Thomas, Omar Sharif,
John Standing, John Wells, Richard Wilson, Alfre Woodard, Peter
O'Toole, Edward Woodard, Phoebe Nicholls, Warwick Davis, Robert
Director: Charles Sturridge.
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